Korean grammar patterns – Listing and contrasting 

 October 7, 2021

By  Smriti

Learning grammar is one of the most difficult things for Korean language learners. On this blog we will try to help you learn Korean grammar in the quickest and easiest way possible.

Today we’ll learn about four grammar particles which are used for listing and contrasting with the help of few sentences.

Korean grammar patterns – Listing and contrasting

1)

의미 : The function of- is twofold. There are two ways to use grammar pattern.

It can simply be used to connect two different clauses, regardless of their sequence. It is equivalent to "and" in English.

It can be used to link two sequential actions or events, equivalent to "and then" in English. 

예문 :

1. 제니퍼가 청소하고 매튜가 요리 해요.

Jennifer cleans up, and Matthew cooks.

2. 숙제를하고 점심을 먹어요.

I do the homework and then eat lunch.

3. 숙제를하고 점심을 먹었어요.

I did the homework and then ate lunch.


2) Noun + (이)나 , Verb + 거나

의미 : Presents a choice between two or more possibilities. It is equivalent to saying " or " in English. 

예문 :

1. 옷이나 신발 같은 것들이 필요했습니다.

I needed things like clothes or shoes.

2. 신발이나 액세서리도 괜찮아요.

Shoes or accessories are fine.


3) A/V + 기는 하지만

의미 : Used to express the word "but" and to mark contrast between two clauses. Thankfully it only comes in one shape which means that we simply attach it to a verb stem without having to worry about conjugation rules.

예문 :

1) 다들 조금씩 먹기는 했지만 다시 먹으려 하지 않아, 접시에 많이 남았습니다.

Everyone ate a little bit, but didn't want to eat it again, so there was a lot left on the plate.

2) 우리집은 조금 작기는 하지만 그런대로 살 만한 집이다.

Our house is a little small, but it's a house worth living in.


4) Adj + (으)ㄴ데/V + 는데

의미 : This is used in a variety of situations to explain something, to join sentences, to express surprise, to expect an answer.

Below are some of the usage of Adj + (으)ㄴ데/V + 는데.

  1. Verbs lose the stem and append -는데.
  2. Descriptive verbs (adjectives) append ㄴ + 데 if the last character is a vowel or ㄹ. 은데 if the last character is a consonant.
  3. It is used when you are explaining the background or situation or result, as a way of joining sentences together.
  4. It is used to join sentences together similar to how 근데 / 그런데 is used, with a 'but / however' meaning, but less strong than that of 지만.
  5. It can be used when the ending result is obvious and also to express surprise.
  6. When used as a question ending, explanation is expected from the listener.

예문 :

1. Weather is nice so how about going for a walk ? 

여기 서울에서 부산까지 가는데 얼마나 걸려요 ?

2. I'm going from Seoul to Busan so how long does it take ? 

나도 시장 가고 싶은데 너무 더워서 집 밖에 못 나가.

** The above information has been provided with the help of kGrammar app available on playstore for free to download. It’s a great app for grammar learning and I would recommend you to check it out. I am thankful to the creators for making it available for free use.

To understand TOPIK Test structure, application process, Levels and Passing scores etc. check these pages:

  1. TOPIK – The Complete Guide & 2. TOPIK Levels and Passing Marks. You can also Practice Online with TOPIK GUIDE Mock Tests.

If you are going to take the TOPIK Test for the first time, or if you want to give your score a boost so that you can pass a higher level, we would strongly advise you to get the Complete Guide to TOPIK – Self-Study Package. It is a digital study package that has everything you need to get a great score in the TOPIK test – all the past TOPIK papers with answer sheets, grammar and vocabulary study material, video tutorials explaining the test structure, strategies to solve them and much more. You can check out more details about this study package HERE.

Learning Korean can be tricky, especially when the goal of your learning is conversation. If you’ve ever attempted to speak Korean but were unable to, then hopefully you’ll find this post helpful.

Thank you for reading. If you have any questions or suggestions. Comment down below.

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