Noun + (이)나 & Verb + 거나 [ Korean Grammar ] 

 July 26, 2021

By  Smriti

Learning grammar is one of the most difficult things for Korean language learners. On this blog we will try to help you learn Korean grammar in the quickest and easiest way possible. This blog will be helpful for those who are studying Korean language and want to improve their grammar skills.

Today we’ll see how to form sentences with Korean grammar pattern "Noun + (이)나 vs Verb +  거나 "with some example sentences.

To explain in the most simplest way, ~(이)나 and ~거나 simply means "or".

It is used when the speaker hasn't made any decision yet and expressing " either of the two", "A as well as B" would be fine.

  • (이)나 has to be used with a Noun or object. 
  • 거나 has to be used with a Verb. 

Let's try to understand this grammar with the help of some examples :

1)  디저트는 크림이나 아이스크림과 함께 나온다.

Dessert is served with cream or ice cream.

2)  또한 우리에게 사과나 배와 같은 맛있는 과일을 줍니다.

They also give us delicious fruits such as apples and pears.

3)  저는 아직까지 먹거나 샤워를 하지 않았어요.

I haven't eaten or showered yet.

4)  병원에 가거나 두통약은 먹었어요?

Did you go to the hospital or take any headache medicine?

In the example sentences 1 and 2, you can clearly see the usage of (이)나. Similarly in the example sentences 3 and 4 you can see the usage of 거나.

Rule to conjugate ~(이)나 with noun :

  • When the Noun ends with a consonant then ~이나 has to be added after the noun or object. Eg : 빵 - 빵이나 
  • When the Noun ends with a vowel then ~나 has to be added after the noun or object. Eg : 사과 - 사과나 

Rule to conjugate ~거나 with verb :

  • After removing 다 from the root verb add 거나 after the verb stem irrespective of whether the verb stem ends with a consonant or vowel. Eg : 먹다 - 먹거나, 가다 - 가거나.

Example sentences :

1) 가방이나 재킷 같은 개인 소지품 또한 조리대에 놓으면 안 됩니다.

Personal items such as bags and jackets should also not be placed on the countertop.


2) 옷이나 신발 같은 것들이 필요했습니다.

I needed things like clothes and shoes.


3) 신발이나 액세서리도 괜찮아요.

Shoes and accessories are fine.


4) 차나 버스 타고 문자할 수 있는 사람들이 부러워.

I envy people who can text while in a car or bus.


5) 나는 차나 커피를 마실거야. 어느 것이든 괜찮아.

I'll take tea or coffee; either is fine.


6) 저는 편한 소파나 침대 위에서 잡지 읽는 것을 좋아해요.

I like reading magazines on a comfortable sofa or bed.


7) 비가 오거나 말거나 모임에 참석하겠다.

I will attend the meeting whether it rains or not.


8) 배포 폴더를 만들거나 수정할 수 있습니다.

You can create or modify the deployment folder.


9) 그들은 단지 울거나 웃어서 자신들의 감정을 표현해요.

They just cry or laugh to express their feelings.


10) 지금부터 너 먹거나 마실 수 없다.

From now on you cannot eat or drink.


11) 손뼉을 치거나 큰 소리로 웃거나 하지 마시오.

Do not clap your hands or laugh loudly.


12) 한국인들은 외국인들을 만나거나 연관되는 것을 두려워합니다.

Koreans are afraid to meet or associate with foreigners.


13) 전에 안경을 쓰거나 콘택트렌즈를 착용해 본 적이 있나요?

Have you worn glasses or contacts before?


14) 다시 쓰거나 영역이 필요한 경우도 있습니다.

Occasional rewriting or translation into English will be required.


Related Korean grammar posts :

Verb + 기 전에 and Noun + 전에

Verb + (으)면서

Verb + 았/었으면 좋겠다

Verb + (으)면


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Learning Korean can be tricky, especially when the goal of your learning is conversation. If you’ve ever attempted to speak Korean but were unable to, then hopefully you’ll find this post helpful.

Thank you for reading. If you have any questions or suggestions. Comment down below.

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