Complete Guide to TOPIK - Self Study Package BX0121

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Today we’ll see grammar patterns which are used to form sentences regarding reasoning and causes behind some actions.

Ultimate list of Korean grammar patterns – Reasons and causes

1)  기 때문에

의미 : The connective- 기 때문에 is Used to express cause and reason.

~기 때문에 is equivalent to the phrase " because of "

예문 :

  • 중국 음식을 좋아하기 때문에 중국 음식을 먹었어요. Because I like Chinese food, I ate Chinese food. 
  • 저는 시험을 못 봤기 때문에 대학교에 못가요. Because I did badly on the test, I won't be able to go to university.

2)  (으)니까

의미 : (으)니까 has many different usages. It can be used to express a reason for an action or state. In this case, it has the same meaning as 'since’ or 'because'.

예문 :

  • 오늘 비가 많이 오니까 만나지 맙시다. - Let's not meet today because of the heavy rain.
  • 내가 잘못 했으니까 내가 사과 할게. - It was my mistake, so I'll apologize.

3)  아/어서

의미 : Can be Used to express doing one action then a second action. It signifies that the action in the following clause happened after, but in connection with the action of the preceding clause.

예문 :

  • 집에 와서 잤어요. - I came home and slept.
  • 공원에 가서 책을 읽을 거예요. - l am going to go to the park and read a book.

4)  (으) ㄹ까 보다

의미 : This form is attached to a verb and indicates the speaker's conjecture or intentions concerning the action or condition being talked about.

예문 :

  • 늦었는데 택시를 탈까보다. - It is late so l'm thinking of taking a taxi.
  • 넘어 질까 봐 손을 잡고 갔어요. - It looked like he might fall so I held his hand and went.

5)  고 해서

의미 : This grammar pattern can be used to state the primary reason for an action or event in the following clause, while also indicating there are also other reasons. This pattern is equivalent to 'A is one of the reasons why B'  or  'among other things'.

예문 :

  • 비도오고해서 온종일 집에 있었어요. - It was raining and all so I stayed home the whole day.
  • 두 사람은 취미도 같고해서 자주 만나요. - The two of them have the same hobbies and all so they meet often.

6)  는 바람에

의미 : This structure is usually used when you want to express a reason or a cause of something that happened unexpectedly or against your hope.

예문 :

  • 테니스 치는 바람에 손이 아팠어요. - My hands hurt from playing tennis.
  • 비가 오는 바람에 바다에 못 갔어요. - I couldn't go to the sea because it was raining.

7)  느라고

의미 : Used when you are unable to do something because you were either interrupted or because you had been doing something else.

The statement given in the preceding clause is the reason for, or cause of the following clause.

예문 :

  • 피아노를 사느라고 돈을 모두 써 버렸다. - I spent all my money buying a piano.
  • 뭐 하느라고 이렇게 늦었어요? - What were you doing to be so late?

8)  거든(요)

의미 : This grammar pattern has several usage. It is used in the first clause for giving an explanation by saying you are stating a fact and further continue with the second clause you will elaborate more about. It can't be used in the first clause of a new conversation in response to an initial statement.

예문 :

  • 버스 서비스가 별로 안 좋거든요. - The bus service is not very good.
  • 연기 그만 하길 원하셨지만, 저는 연기가 좋았거든요. - My parents wanted me to quit acting, but I liked it.

9)  잖아요

의미 : An expression used to check with or correct the listener on something about a certain situation.

예문 :

  • 어제 비가 많이 왔잖아요. - You know it has been raining yesterday.
  • 그건 제가 아닌 저희 부모님 것이 있잖아요. - You know that it's not me, it's my parents.

10)  (으)ㄴ/는 탓에

의미An expression used to indicate that the preceding statement is the reason or cause for the following negative phenomenon.

The reason or cause for the 1st clause to have the negative consequence on the 2nd clause.

예문 :

  • 올해는 비가 많이 온 탓에 농산물값이 작년보다 인상되었다. - Due to the heavy rain this year, agricultural product prices have risen compared to last year.
  • 지수의 성적이 떨어진 것은 자주 친구들과 어울려 논 탓이다. - The reason Jisoo's grades fell is because she often played with her friends.

11)  더니/았/었더니

의미 : This pattern is used for the speaker to talk about something they either directly saw or experienced in the past about someone else as the reason, cause or consequence for what happens in the final clause.

A connective ending used when there is another different fact related to a certain fact in the past.  when there is a new fact different from what one realized from an experience in the past.

예문 :

  • 지난 주말에는 춥 더니 이번주는 따뜻 해요. - Last week it was cold, but this week has been warm. 
  • 비가 오더니 날씨가 따뜻해졌다. - It's been raining and now it´s turned warm.

12)  (으)로 인해서

의미 : The usage is similar to other grammar patterns used for expressing causes or reasoning. 

It is used in formal settings or situations, newspapers etc. 

예문 :

  • Under the circumstances, we couldn't buy the car. - 그런 상황으로 인해서 우리는 그 차를 구입하지 못했다.
  • Many soldiers fell to the enemy's bombardment. - 적의 폭격으로 인해서 수많은 병사들이 쓰러졌다

13)  는 통에

의미 : An expression used to indicate the situation or cause of the bad result mentioned in the following statement.

It is used to express reason or cause in the first clause which resulted in the failure of the second clause of the sentence. 

Because the first clause stems from the complications, second clauses often appear as negative.

예문 :

  • He annoys me because he's loud and talks too much. - 그 사람은 시끄럽고 너무 많이 말하는 통에 날 귀찮게 함
  • The flight was delayed due to snow. - 눈이 오는 통에 비행기가 출발을 지연 됐습니다.

14) (으)로 말미암아

의미 : The word "말미암아" itself means come from, arise from, be derived from, be owing to, be due to etc. 

It is equivalent to saying because of, due to or owing to….

예문 :

15)  (느)ㄴ 답시고

의미 : 답시고 is a connective ending used in the first clause of the statement, when the speaker is displeased about the subject claiming that the preceding statement is the reason for the following action.

예문 :

  • 아들 녀석은 책을 읽는답시고 앉아서 꾸벅꾸벅 졸고 있다. - My son is reading a book and is sitting and dozing off.
  • 승규는 길을 묻는답시고 지나가는 여자에게 말을 걸어 보았다. - Seung-gyu asked for directions and talked to a woman passing by.

16)  기에

의미 : A connective ending referring to the cause or reason of the following statement.

기에 has the meaning of “so…..” or “because……” in English.

예문 :

  • 친구는 배가 부르다고 하기에 나 혼자 주문을 했다. - My friend said he was full, so I ordered by myself.
  • 책이 싸기에 한 권을 샀다. - I bought a book because it was cheap.

To understand TOPIK Test structure, application process, Levels and Passing scores etc. check these pages:

  1. TOPIK – The Complete Guide & 2. TOPIK Levels and Passing Marks. You can also Practice Online with TOPIK GUIDE Mock Tests.

If you are going to take the TOPIK Test for the first time, or if you want to give your score a boost so that you can pass a higher level, we would strongly advise you to get the Complete Guide to TOPIK – Self-Study Package. It is a digital study package that has everything you need to get a great score in the TOPIK test – all the past TOPIK papers with answer sheets, grammar and vocabulary study material, video tutorials explaining the test structure, strategies to solve them and much more. You can check out more details about this study package HERE.

Learning Korean can be tricky, especially when the goal of your learning is conversation. If you’ve ever attempted to speak Korean but were unable to, then hopefully you’ll find this post helpful.

Thank you for reading. If you have any questions or suggestions. Comment down below.

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