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TOPIK Essential 150 Intermediate Grammar Notes 

 March 31, 2018

By  Satish Satyarthi

A TOPIK GUIDE reader ‘Alex Lintzenich‘ has sent a copy of his TOPIK Intermediate grammar notes from the ‘TOPIK Essential 150’ book with some other additions. It has brief explanations of the grammar points. You can get a pdf copy of this list from HERE and a MS word copy from HERE.

Grammar

Used With

Usage

Similar Phrases

Notes

-(느)ㄴ다고 해도

V/A/N(I)

When P1 context does not affect P2 result -아/어 봤자
-(느)ㄴ다기보다(는)

V/A/N(I)

Used to indicate that it is better to say P2 rather than P1 (rather than P1, P2 is a better reason/option)
-(느)ㄴ다는 것이

V

Explains the situation when the intention and result differ (I should have P1 but P2 happened) -Indicates speaker’s intention
-Can’t use Imperative/suggestive
-(느)ㄴ다면

V/A/N(I)

-To show a condition or assume something (hypothetical) that has not happened yet (assuming different situation)
-Used to refer to hypothetical situations either contrary to what happened in the past or what is happening in the present
-Lower probability of happening than -(으)면
-Usually -겠어요/-(으)ㄹ 거에요/-(으)ㄹ 텐데 occur at end
-(으)ㄴ 감이 있다

A

To express certain feeling or thoughts that spring from seeing something -(으)ㄴ 감이 없지 않다
-(으)ㄴ 지 N(Time)이/가
되다/넘다/지나다

V

Used to say how much time has passed after doing something -(으)ㄴ 지 오래 되다 been a long time
-(으)ㄴ 지 얼마 안 되다 hasn’t been a long time
N is always a time noun
-(으)ㄴ 채(로)

V

Used when certain action is taken in the process of another action (P1), focus is on the resulting state that continues -When used with -아/어 놓다 or -아/어두다 the 로 is dropped -Can use with verbs indicating wearing things on your body
-Can use for continuation of emotional state
-Incomplete/Complete actions can be used
-Not used to describe naturally expected situations
-(으)ㄴ/는

V/A/N(I)

An expression that modifes the following noun -When used in the past the action has already ended
-Expresses only the simple past with no recollection
-(으)ㄴ/는 것 같다

V/A/N(I)

-To guess through a certain fact or situation
-To express a thought or an opinion
-“looks like” “appears that”
-나 보다 (1)
-(으)ㄴ/는 모양이다 (1)
-(으)ㄴ/는 듯하다 (1)
-(으)ㄴ/는 대신(에)

V/A/N(I)

-Used when changing P1’s matter into P2 (Since P1 ____ instead P2)
-Used to reward P2’s matter due to P1 (Because P1, P2 <reward> can happen)
P1’s action can either be replaced by another action or that another action can compensate for P1’s action
-(으)ㄴ/는 데다가

V/A/N(I)

Used to add (phrases should be related and be able to be connected by 그래서 or 그러니까) information from P2 to P1 (as well as) -(으)ㄹ 뿐(만)아니라 -Subject should be the same
-N-에다거 used to indicate the noun in following clause is added to P1, it can also indicate location
-(으)ㄴ/는 듯하다

V/A/N(I)

To speculate on the basis of certain fact or situation -(으)ㄴ/는 듯이 ((-으)ㄴ/는 것 처럼)
-나 보다
-(으)ㄴ/는 것 같다
-(으)ㄴ 모양이다
-(으)ㄴ/는 모양이다

V/A/N(I)

To speculate something on the basis of certain fact or situation (shape or appearance) -나 보다
-(으)ㄴ/는 것 같다
-(으)ㄴ/는 듯하다
-No guess in P1 (If guess you use -(으)ㄹ 것 같다)
-Often used with -(으)ㄴ/는 걸 보니까 which is the basis for making the guess
-(으)ㄴ/는 반면(에)

V/A/N(I)

Used when context of P1 contrasts with P2 (_____ while _____) -지만
-는데 반해
Express 2 things that are opposite or one positive and one negative in one sentence
-(으)ㄴ/는 법이다

V/A

Used to say that it is only natural in general for something to happen as such (it is certain) -기 마련이다
-(으)ㄴ/는 셈이다

V

-When something seems to be similar to something else (almost the same)
-When it is considered that it is similar as doing something else
-외/과 마찬가니다 -는 셈치다 used to suppose something that is different from reality (pretend)
-(으)ㄴ/는 줄 알았다/몰랐다

V/A/N(I)

Used when information about certain fact is different from what had been expected (I thought that.. but really..) -는다고 생각하다
-(으)려니 생각하다
-(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다 (used to when checking ability/awareness on how to do something
-When used with positive and negative comments on ability (+/+ and -/- worse than you expected) (-/+ and +/- better than expected)
-(으)ㄴ/는 척하다

V/A/N(I)

Used to express a fabrication of an attitude or actoin that is different from the fact (act like <V/A/N attached) -은 척했다 (Subject acts like they did something but didn’t)
-는 척했다 (Subject acts like they are in the process of something but in reality not)
-P1 contains what is contrary to reality
-You can’t use 알다 in the past
-(으)ㄴ/는 체하다

V/A/N(I)

Used to express the attitude that is different from the actual action or condition (acted as though <V/A/N attached> in order to Clause 1) -(으)ㄴ/는 척하다
-(으)ㄴ/는 탓에

V/A/N(I)

When a bad result is placed in P2 due to P1 -는 탓이다
-는 바람에
-는 통에
In this phrase 탓 roughly means reason/cause something bad happens
-(으)ㄴ/는 편이다

V/A

To say that something tends to be similar to something else (generally so) -Negatve forms 안 -는 편이다, -는 편이 아니다 -Normally adverb in front
-Characteristic/quality needs to be obvious or objectively verifiable (in general terms)
-(으)ㄴ/는데

V/A/N(I)

-When P1 becomes the reason of P2 (since/therefore/and)
-When the P2’s context contrasts with P1 (but)
-To do something in P2 on the basis of P1 (background information)
-(으)ㄴ/는데도

V/A/N(I)

When something that is different from a generally expected result in P1’s situation is placed in P2 -With 불구하고 to make -(으)ㄴ/는데도 불구하고 to further emphasize the contrast or unexpectedness -Can’t use future tense, imperative, or suggestive ending
-(으)ㄴ/는지 알다/모르다

V/A/N(I)

Used to ask whether the listener is/isn’t aware certain information (do you know..) It can also be a response “I don’t/do know..”
-(으)나 마나

V

When the result does not change whether the action (attached) is taken or not -아/어 봤자
-(으)나 만나이다
-Don’t use with verbs with negative connotation
-Can’ use 안/못 in front of -(으)나 마나
-(으)ㄹ 걸 (그랬다)

V

Used to regret or feel sorry for something (Should have <V attached>/Regret doing something else would have been better) -았/었어야 했는데 (Should have done)
-지 말걸 그랬다/안 -(으)ㄹ 걸 그랬다 (Should not have done)
-그랬다 always in the past
-Normally if used at end of sentence just -(으)ㄹ 걸
-(으)ㄹ 게 아니라

V

Used to suggest doing P2’s action and not doing P1’s action -지 말고
-(으)ㄹ 것이 아니라
Rather than P1, P2 is a better idea
-(으)ㄹ 겸 (-을 겸)

V

In P1 to express more than two purposes about P2’s action -는 김에(means doing actions together)
-가는 길에/오는 길엥 (on the way to/from you do something)
-겸 (used with noun)
-When used with 1 reason listener can infer there is another reason (in this case 해서 often follows)
-(으)ㄹ 리(가) 없다/있다

V/A/N(I)

To express that what comes in P1 is not true based on certain fact or situation -절대로 -지 않을 것이다
-(으)ㄹ 리(가) 있어요?
-(으)ㄹ 만하다

V

-To reocommed something since the speaker consideres it to be worthy
-To express an available level or degree
When used as worthwhile many times in this form with -아/어 보다= -아/어볼 만하
-(으)ㄹ 뻔하다

V

Used to mean that something almost happened (but did not actually happen) (almost <V attached>) -Most cases speaker is relieved it didn’t happen
-Always use in past
-Often used following constuctions that indicate hypothetical past situations (-았/었더라)
-(으)ㄹ 뿐(만) 아니라

V/A/N(I)

To add a piece of information from P2 to P1 (but also) -(으)ㄴ/는 데다가 -Clauses should be +/+ or -/- can’t mix
-These often follow (A/V-기까지 하다/ A/V-기도 하다/ N-까지 A/V)
-(으)ㄹ 뿐이다

V/A/N(I)

To show that there is nothing else than what is mentione in P1 (that’s all, all I did, only) -(으)ㄹ 뿐
-More emphatic use (N-만 -(으)ㄹ 뿐이다/ A/V-기만 -(으)ㄹ 뿐이다)
-Only one course of action
-In this form 뿐=오직 meaning solely, merely, only
-(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다

A/V

Used in situations in which there is no other choice for the subject but to do P1’s action (in case of verb) or to be in P1’s stat (in case of adj)
-(으)ㄹ 정도로

V/A

To say that the degree of P2 is same as that of P1 (so…that…) -(으)ㄹ 정도이다
-(으)ㄹ 만큼
-(으)ㄹ 지경이다
Used to exagerate
-(으)ㄹ 지경이다

V

When the condition is similar to something else (about to) -(으)ㄹ 정도이다
-(으)ㄹ 테니(까)

V/A/N(I)

-P1 is used to express the speaker’s strong supposition and it becomes a reson or condition of P2
-P1 shows the speaker’s will and becomes the condition for P2
Combination of -(으)ㄹ 터이다 (Express speaker’s intention) and -(으)니까 (express reason) -Can’t be interrogative (use -(으)ㄹ 텐데for a question)
-Subject should be speaker in P1
-P1= reason for suggestion or advice
-P2=suggestion or advice
-(으)ㄹ 텐데

V/A/N(I)

When the preceding phrase shows a speaker’s speculation and it works as a basis of the succeeding phrase
-P1-strong intention or expection
-P2-statement related or contrary to P1
This refers to the actual situation related to the supposition or assumption
-Combination of -(으)ㄹ 터이다 used for future situation or intention to do something and -(으)ㄴ/는데 provides background information for what is to follow -This regers to the reason for the speaker’s supposition -(으)ㄹ 테니까
-Different than -(으)ㄴ/는데 as it is used to express assumption about current or future situation
-(으)ㄹ걸(요)

V/A/N(I)

To speculate (need knowledge to back up speculation) about certain fact -(으)ㄹ 거야
-(으)ㄹ 거예요 (means a speculation)
– Converation only, intention raises at end
-Not that confident when saying this, can use to softly disagree with listener
-(으)ㄹ까 봐(서)

V/A/N(I)

-To do P2 in advance because the speaker is worried about P1 (봐 here used as to guess/think) -(으)ㄹ까 싶어(서)
-(으)ㄹ 지도 몰라(서)
*This is different-(으)ㄹ까 보다/-(으)ㄹ까 싶다/-(으)ㄹ까 하다/-(으)ㄹ 지도 모르다 comes at the end of sentence and shows an uncertain plan
-(으)ㄹ까 하다

V

Used to describe the speaker’s vague intention or plan that can easily be changed (I might _____) -(으)ㄹ까 보다 -Negative sentences can’t use 뭇
-Can’t use future tense/imperative/suggestive
-(으)ㄹ락 말락 하다

V

Used to say that something almost happened but didn’t at the end (I nearly <V attached> but (reason why not))
-(으)ㄹ지도 모르다

V/A/N(I)

Used to indicate the speaker’s view that something might happen or could possibly (but unlikely) occur -(으)ㄹ지 모르다 -Used as a guess so rude to use about an important event that someone is worried about
-With past tense don’t add to 모르다
-(으)려고 하다

V

-Used to explain future plans (more concrete than -(으)ㄹ까 하다)
-Used to explain when something is likely to happen
-Usef for when plan did not materialize as expected
-Indicates the speaker’s intention
-Can use for future plans
-Intend to/Plan to/Going to..
-(으)려던 참이다

V

Used to express a plan for the foreseeable future (indicates speaker’s intention), speaker was just about to do what is suggested -(으)려던 참이었다-even before the suggestion (I had planned to <even before you said that> and was just about to) -These often appear at the beginning 마침/그렇지 않아도/안 그래도
-Can’t use future tense/imperative/suggestive
-For mid sentence 이다 changes to 에
-(으)로 인해(서)

N

When P2’s result comes because of P1 (Due to <N attached> _____ happened) Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-(으)로서

N

Used to indicate that someone has a position, social status or authority or in such stance (as a <N attached>)
-(으)리라고

V/A/N(I)

Used to speculate something (I believe <V/A/N attached> since Clause 1) -(으)리라고는 상상도 못하다 (used when speaker never thought about the situation)
-(으)리라는 N (used to mean think, guess, speculate)
믿다, 생각하다, 보다, etc.. Often follow
-(으)면서도

V/A

Used when the opposite context to the status/action of P1 come in P2 -지만
-(이)나마

N

-Used to choose something even though it is not 100% satisfactory (2nd best option)
-Can also show no preference
-잠시나마
-잠깐이나마
-조금이나마
-You can use imperative/suggestive
-Should be used with intention or will phrases
-(이)라도

N

Used to indicate the speaker’s choosing of something that will suffice even though it is not the best option among the available choices -Used with 어느, 아무, 무엇, 무슨, or 누구 the expression means that something is the case no matter the circumstances or situation -Choosing the next best option
-Use when ranking the available options
-(이)야말로

N

Used to emphasize something among others representing the rest (prime example) N attached is most among all
-거나 (-거나)

V/A/N(I)

Used when one is supposed to choose one out of two options (or) -든지 -거나 Typically one used once but can appear twice
-거든

V/A/N(I)

-To show a condition or assume something that has not happened (generally used in casual conversation)
-If P1 is actually true then…
-거든요 means reason (only known by speaker) and comes at the end of the sentence -Many times P1 is guess and P2 is suggestive/imperative sentence
-거든요

V/A/N(I)

Used to respond to a question or to add to a statement the speaker has already made to provide the reason or thinking behind the answer or statement

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-건만

V/A/N(I)

Used when there are opposite fact between P1 and P2 Although/Despite P1’s action, P2’s action (opposite) happened
-게

V

To show the purpose towards the action of P1 (P2 in order for me to/so that P1) -개끔 used to be emphatic
-게 되다

V/A

Used when something is changed or something happened due to a certain reason, used to express passively in cases in which the subject’s will or intention is not involved -Past indicates a state or situation that has come to be true in the present, or that has been decided
-Used to tell someone something happened in a indirect/gentle manner
-게 하다

V

-When someone (subject) made someone else do something (verbally make them do something, no direct physical connection)
-Also refer to giving/not giving another person permission to do something
-도록 하다
-게 만들다
-Can’t use 안 for negative only 못 to show prohibition of some action
-When attached to Adj it indicates that the subject causes another person to be in the state described by the Adj
-고 나서

V

When doing P2’s action after finishing all P1’s action -고서 Only use -고나면 when end of P1 becomes condition for P2 (If you do action 1 then action 2 will happen bc of 1)
-고 말다

V

-Used to express that something finally took place (unplanned event/action that continued until it was completed or thoroughly finished in a way undesired by the speaker) -아/어 버리다
-고 말겠다 shows stronger intention of speaker
-Subject did not plan or intend to do what happened (efforts were made to prevent a result but were ineffective)
-End in past tense usually
-Can be used to show intention with -겠-/-(으)ㄹ 테니까/꼭/반드시
-고 보니(까)

V

When some fact is found after doing something, new/contrary to current belief (after I realized) -고보면 (If you do this you will get this result)
-Occurs after an action is completed
-Refers to a time after performing an action once
-P2 contains new or unexpected information learned by the speaker
-고 해서

V/A/N(I)

This expression means that the reason given in P1 is just one of a number of reasons for the behaviour in P2 -N도 V-고/ A/V-기도 하고 해서
-N도 A/V-고 A/V-고 해서 or A/V-기도 하고 A/V-기도 해서 this expression indicates two representative reasons among many for the action in P2
Only primary reason is given but the clause indicates that thare are other reasons also not said
-고도

V

When the result of P1’s action is different from the expectation Can’t use with imperative or suggestive sentences
-고말고(요)

V/A/N(I)

Used to express an agreement of something or a thought to think of something as reasonable (of course <V/A/N attached>)
-고서

V

To express when P2’s action or condition appears after P1’s action is finished (before/after relationship) -고 나서
-고
-고서야

V

-When P2’s action can take place after P1’s action is finished
-As a rhetorical question when P1 works as a condition of P2
Use -아/어 야 when P1 is critical condition for P2 to take place or when P1 turns out to be meaningless
-고자

V

When P2’s action is taken for an intention or purpose of P1 -고자 하다 (used when the speaker has an intention to take certain action)
-(으)려고
-기 위해(서)
-Used in official speech/writing
-Subjects must be same
-Can’t use Imperative or Suggestive endings
-곤 하다

V

Means that a certain action or situation repeatedly happens, but not always without exception (often) -고는 하다
-기 일쑤이다
Used often with 곧잘, 자주, 가끔
-기 때문에

V/A/N(I)

Usef for the reson of P2’s action -기 때문이다
-아/어서
-(으)니까
-Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-Larger reason compared to -아/어서/-(으)니까
-기 마련이다

V/A

Used to say that certain situation is natural and reasonable (is bound to) -게 마련이다
-(으)ㄴ/는 게 당연하다
-(으)ㄴ/는 법이다
-기 위해(서)

V

P1 is an objective of P2 -기 위하여 Subject must be the same
-기 일쑤이다

V

Used when something occurs frequently Usually a negative connotation
-기(가)

V

Used to express the state or thought of doing something (find that ending Adj <V attached> P1) Normally Adj at the end to mean feeling
-기(가) 무섭게

V

To express doing something as soon as something is finished (as soon as) -자마자
-기(를) 바라다

V

Used to express one’ wish or hope
-기는 하지만

V/A/N(I)

When despite recognizing P1’s condition, something different than what had been expected is placed in P2. -기는(긴) -지만 -Subject must be same for both clauses
– P1 is acknowlded but emphasizing speaker’s belief in
–기는 했지만 shows past
-기는(요)

V/A/N(I)

Used to slightly deny what the other person said or answer about a compliment in a modest way (I don’t think so, <V/A attached> “negating sentence”) -긴요 Can’t be used with expressions that denote tense
-기도 하다

V

Used to indicate that it is done sometimes -기도하고 (used with V when P1 “or” P2 are done, used with Adj when adding information “P1 happens but sometimes P2 happens as well)
-기로 하다

V

Used to describe a plan, resolution and promise towards something (I decided to ____) -기로 계획하다
-기로 결심하다
-기로 약석하다
-Usually past tense but when present tense speaker & listener are making a promise together
-Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-기만 하다

V/A

To show that only one particular action or state has been continued
-기만 하면

V/A/N(I)

To represent when P1’s action or situation always accompanies P2’s context If P1 happens P2 always happens
-기에

V/A/N(I)

When P1 is the basis or reason of P2 -길래 (colloquial) -Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-P1 subject can’t be speaker
-길래

V/A/N(I)

When P1 becomes basis or purpose of P2 -기에 (written) -Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-P1 subject can’t be speaker
-까지

N

Used to indicate that something else happened on top of something (as well as) -마저/조차 (only when it is a negative connotation)
-나 보다

V/A/N(I)

To guess about something based on certain fact or situation -(으)ㄴ/는 것 같다
-(으)ㄴ/는 모양이다
-(으)ㄴ/는 듯하다
-느니

V

Used when P2 is not satisfactory but it is considered to be better than P1 (would rather P2 than P1) Often followed by 차라리 (rather, preferably)
-느라(고)

V

-When doing what comes in P2 is not possible due to P1
-When P2 becomes the same situation due to P1
-는 바람에
-는통에
-는 탓에

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-는 길에

V

-It means “on the way to/from somewhere”
-It means “using coming/going to somewhere as a chance”
-는 길이다
-는 도중에
Can use only movement verbs
-는 김에

V

Used to the situation of doing something during the process of doing something else (P1’s action while…P2’s action) -는 길에 (1)
-는 대로

V

-It means to do the same as doing something else (repeat, do as told)
-It means to do something as soon as something is done
-Second option can’t use in past
-Only Adj you can use is -고 싶다/편하다/좋다
-Can’t use negative in front
-는 덕분에

V/N(I)

When thanks to P1, good result comes in P2 -는 덕분이다 -Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-Positive result
-는 동 마는 둥

V

Used to express that something did not take place wholeheartedly during the task (wasn’t all for <V attached>) First clause is usually the reason why
-는 동안(에)

V

Used to express the period of time that certain action or condition continued (P2’s action while <V attached>) -는 사이(에) (only when subjects are different) Movement verbs you can use -(으)ㄴ 동안(에) to show past tense
-는 바람에

V

To express the reason why P1 badly affected P2 (expresses reason and als the result was not intended) -는 탓에
-는 통에
-는 덕분에 (opposite meaning)
-Typically negative result (exception when something completely unexpected or unintended occurs and is positive)
-Should end in past tense
-Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-는 사이(에)

V

Used to show the period of time that a certain action or condition is continued -는 동안(에) Subjects must differ
-는 수가 있다

V

Used to mean there is a possibility that something might happen due to a certain action or condition (You may <V attached> Clause 1) -(으)ㄹ 지도 모르다 Usually a negative result
-는 중에

V

Used to show the process of certain action (in the middle of) -는 중이다 P2’s action while <V attached>
-는 통에

V

When there is abad result in P2 due to P1 -는 바람에
-는 탓에
Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-는 한

V

To show the situation of P2 will be realised as long as the condition of P1 is satisfied
-다 보니

V

Used to indicate that the speaker learned something new after doing some actoin or behaviour continuously from time in the past or that a certain situation has occurred as a result of -다가 보니까
-다 보니까
-다 is shortened form of -다가 which refers to something occuring in the middle of a continuance action
-보니 is shortened form of 보다 and -(으)니까 which refers to a discover or result

#############################

-다 보면

V

When P2’s action may be realized (discovery of something) if P1’s action is continued or repeated -다가 보면 -No past at the end of P2
-Common endings for P2 (-(으)ㄹ 수 있다/-게 될 거예요/-게-)
-다 모(니까) is slightly different, P2 is a result (more definite) of continued action
-다가

V

-That something is done on the way while stopping the previous action
-When some other action is taken in the process of certion action
-는 길에 (Only when 오다/가다 used in front)
-다가는 speculates a bad result in P2
-다가 말다가 하다 use when action is on and off
-아/어다가 P2 result do to P1
-다(가) 보니(까) P2 action result of P1 action continuing
-다(가) 보면 If P1 action happens expect P2 to happen (guess cause and effect)
-다가는

V

When a bad result is expected after doing P1’s action -Speaking hypothetically use -았/었다가는 -If P1 has continued from some time in the past 이렇게/그렇게/저렇게 are often used
-P2 should end with supposition or conjecture ending
-Can use present tense for general result
-다니

V/A/N(I)

Used to express that certain fact or situation is amazing or unbelievable (I can’t believe that <V/A/N attached>) -다니(요) end of sentence In response follow form in first sentence
-다라도

V/A/N(I)

Recognize P1’s fact if it does not affect P2’s context -아/어도 Can only be used when P1’s action is not taking place
-다시피 하다

V

-When doing something nearly similar to something else (as you know)
-When speaker is not actually doing something but doing something that is similar
-다시피 is used to reconfirm the information a listener is expected to be aware of already (used w/ 알다, 보다, 듣다, 배우다, 느끼다, etc..- as you know, as you have heard, as you have seen, etc..)
-답다

N

Used to indicate that something has the qualities or characteristics of the noun, having the qualities that are typically expected in the particular noun Can be used after nouns denoting places and institutions
-더니

V/A/N(I)

-Used when P1 contrasts with P2 (but)
-It indicates the result due to someone else’s action (P2’s action because/since P1’s action)
-Occurrence of something immediately following the end of another occurrence
-더니만 -Speaker wants to refer to something directly seen or experienced (reason/cause) in the past to describe how that has changed
-Speaker can’t be subject
-Topic/subjects must be same
-Present tense always used
-더라고요

V/A/N(I)

Used to express the speaker’s recollection that he or she directly saw, heard, or felt some prior event or action -더군(요)
-더라 (only familiar speech
-Used to express a person’s mood, emotions or feelings 3rd person-아/어하더라고요
-To refer to things that completed in the past use -았/었더라고요
-Subject can’t be speaker
-Speaker needs to learn for the first time not something already known
-First person used for expressing a person’s mood, emotions or feelings
-Can’t use to express contrary opinion
-던

V/A/N(I)

###############################

-Expresses recollection of something done repeatedly
-Past action that has not come to an end
-Can’t use with things that only occurred once and do not repeat
-던데(요)

V/A/N(I)

-Used to talk about the recollection of the past (when expressing something contradictory to what the other person just said or showing shock/surprise toward a past event or particular situation -Combines -더- recollection and -(으)ㄴ데요 which indicates background information contradictory or a surprising situation -Use past for actions completed in the past
-Subject can only be in first person
-Used mid-sentence for cases used to introduce a past situation or the fact that the present situation is contrary to what the case was in the past
-도록

V/A

-When P1 works as a purpose of P2
-It means the period to reach a certain time
-게 (1)
-기위해(서) (can’t use when the subject differs)
-도록 하다

V

When someone made (instruct/suggest) someone else do something -게 하다
-도록 하세요- Suggestion to do a certain action (response -도록 하겠습니다)
Only imperative/propositive
-든지

V

Used in a situation that using either is fine (You can either..) -든지 -든지 하다
-거나
-If using with Adj need to add -든지 to both Adj
– Can’t use -겠-
-Many times used with interrogatives (언제든지, 뭐든지, 누구든지
-럽다

N

Indicate a sufficient amount of a certain quality of the noun attached to Only used with some nouns without final consonants
-마저

N

Used to indicate the last one left is even added -까지
-조차
Usually used in bad occasions
-만 하다

N

Used to compare two things that have similar degree (used with noun denoting size, amount, number) (P1 Noun is as _____ as P2 Noun) N만 못하다- <N> is less ___ than <N attached 만못하다>
-만 해도

N

Used when providing examples to explain a situation or statement made previously -의 경우만 봐도
-만 하더라도
Also used to express a situation that is opposite to what was the case in the past (usually a time word if often followed by -전만해도
-만에

N

Used to indicate that something occrred a certain amount of time after a previous event occurred -P1 usually includes (으)ㄴ 지 which indicates that the action described in the cluase has been completed in a certain amount of time
-Refers to an event happening a certain time after the occurrence of a previous event
-만큼

N

Used to show the similarity in size (same as) -만큼도 (used to emphasize something with an exaggeration)
-밖에

N

Used to indicate that there is only that person/matter remaining (only/nothing but) -이나 (opposite) -Has to be negative in second part
-Can’t be imperative/suggestive
-스럽다

N

Has the feeling or quality just like the noun it is attached to Sounds weird used after nouns denoting places and institutions
-아/아 봤자

V/A

– When it is expected that regardless of doing P1’s work, the expected result does not seem to be realized (even if)
– When P1’s condition is great
-(으)ㄴ/는다고 해도 (1)
-(으)나 마나 (1)
-Can’t use with imperative or suggestive
-소용이 없다 commonly used in P2 (it is useless meaning)
-아/어 가다/오다

V

-가다-Used when the current situation is continuously maintained in the future (now to future)
-오다- Used when the past condition has long been maintained to the present (past to now)
-Use for a long time only
-This can be used when something is about to be finished 다 -아/어 가다
-아/어 가지고

V/A/N(I)

When P1’s completed result becomes the reason for P2 (Since P1 ~ P2 happened) -아/어 갖고
-아/어 서
-With V used only to express the order of something (Imperative/suggestive ok)
-With Adj used only to indicate the speaker’s reason for a certain action (can’t use imperative/suggestive)
-아/어 내다

V

Used to the result that has been accomplished after certain process -Usually some sort of problem that you need to find a solution for
-Past tense follows
-아/어 놓다

V

When certain action continues after being finished (continuance, maintaining) -아/어 두다
-With 놓다=놓아두다/놔두다
-Don’t use with verbs used to indicate wearing things on your body
-Focus action completed
-Can’t use for emotional state
-아/어 대다

V

Used when a certain action is done repeatedly Used to deliver negative feeling of speaker
-아/어 두다

V

-Used to mean that the action that has been done in advance (usually to prepare for an event) is being continued
-Fact that something is already in such a state (in advance)
-아/어 놓다 (but normally prefer to use -아/어 두다 for long time period, more often used to describe storing or saving something -Focus on action being completed already
-Can’t use for emotional state
-Don’t use with verbs used to indicate wearing thing on your body
-아/어 버리다

V

Used to emphasize that something is completely done (refers to the final state or resulting of a situation) -고 말다 -Subject usually plans in advance and does intentionally
-Past tense follows
-아/어 보이다

A

Used to indicate one’s conjecture or feelings based on the outward appearance of a person, thing or event (You look..) -게 보이다
-아/어 있다

V

Used to express a certain condition or result is continued after an action or change has been completed (is “-ed/ing”) -Difference with -고 있다 is this action is completed not in process -Used with verbs that don’t need objects (앉다, 서다, 눕다) or passive verbs (걸리다, 열리다, 닫히다)
-아/어다가

V

Expression indicates that the action in the P2 is done based on the result of first completing the action in P1 -아/어다 주다
-아/어다
-Phrase indicates that the speaker performed the second action in different location than that of the first action
-Tense shown P2
-아/어도

V/A

Recognize P1’s fact but it does not affect P2’s context (even if, regardless) -다라도 (only when P1’s matter is not taking place)
-아/어서 그런지

V/A/N(I)

To speculate that P1 is the reason for P2 (guess maybe…) -아/어서 그럴 거예요 used at end of sentence Can’t use imperative/suggestive
-아/어서는

V/A

When something in P1 makes it impossible for something to be accomplished P2 needs to be negative -없다/힘들다
-아/어서야

V/A

-When the P2’s action is taken when it reaches certain timing
-To emphasize that it is difficult for P2 to take place having P1 as the condition
Used as second meaning -(으)ㄹ 수없다/ -겠어요 often follow
-아/어야(지)

V/A/N(I)

-To show that P1 is necessary condition to accomplish P2
-To indicate the futility of expecting the result described in P2 regardless of P1
-아/어야(만) (used in speeches reports)
-이/가 아니어야
-이/가 아니라야
-Can’t end with past tense/propositive/ imperative sentences
-Used in conversation
-을 수 있다/-을 것 같다/-지요 will often follow
-아/어야지요

V

Used when the speaker is making a promise to oneself, making a decision to do something or simply expressing such an intention
-아/어지다

A

Used to express the change in condition (turn/become <Adj Attached>) -Past tense expresses a change resulting from an action performed in the past
-Present tense used to describe a change that generally occurs when a particular action is performed
-아/어지다

V

Used when something is not done directly by the subject but done by something else
-았/었다가

V

-When something else takes place that drastically contrasts with something that happened before (-았/었 express completion of action)
-Do an action and then experience something noteworthy/unexpected (usually unplanned event)
-았/었 는에 (1) -Action must be completely finished
-Subjects meed to match
-Actions should be related/opposite
-았/었더니

V

-For something that has been recognized after doing certain action (Because P1 action new thing recognized <P2>)
-To state the result after doing something
-(으)니까 -When 3rd person recalling completed action and P2 subject different, P1 subject usually speaker
-Not past form of -더나
-았/었더라면

V/A/N(I)

When supposing something (in past) opposite (what actually happened) and then think about it (If past even happened different guess on the result) -았/었으면
-아/어야 했는데
-(았/었)는다면 (this can be used both if or if not a situation happens
-Sometimes used with -(으)ㄹ 뻔하다 to say it was lucky you didn’t do something in the past
-았/었던

V/A/N(I)

-Modifies the following noun and also indicates the reminiscence of the past
-Modifies the following noun and it is used to describe that the matter has ended
-Used to reminisce something that has been done only once
-Adj can refer to cases in which the present situation has become the opposite or contrary to a past situation or state of affairs
-Or Adj can refer to cases in which a past situation has continued in the same state until the present
-았/었어야 했는데

V/A/N(I)

Used to regret or feel sorry for something (Necessary action was not completed/achieved) -(으)ㄹ 걸 (그랬다) Regret because they did not do something they should have done
-았/었으면
(싶다/하다/좋겠다)

V/A/N(I)

Used to show one’s hope or wish -는다면 좋겠다
-(으)면 좋겠다
-More strongly emphasizes the verb
-Desire for situation opposite of what it currently is
-에 달려 있다

N

Used to show that something is more important in deciding something (depends on <N attached> -기 는것 (used for verbs) -느냐에 달려 있다 use with interrogatives (who, when, where, what and how many)
-에 따라 다르다

N

Used to say that result changes because of something (according to <N attached>) -느냐에따라 다르다/-느냐에 달려 있다 use with interrogatives (who, when, where, what and how many)
-에다가

N

Used to indicate the place where certain action is taking place -에
-은/는커녕

N

-Used to indicate that not only what comes in P1, the more realistic one that comes in P2 is even hard to accomplish
-Shows that something is different from what had been expected
-은/는 말할 것도 없고 -In one normally negative in second part
-In two used with 오히려 (rather) often
-자

V

When P2’s action takes place as soon as P1’s action is finished (as soon as) -자마자 -Action must be completely finished
-Can’t use for imperative and suggestive sentences
-자마자

V

When an action of P1 is taken as soon as certain action of P1 has been taken -기(가) 무섭게
-는 대로 (present tense only)
-자 (can’t for imperative/suggestive)
-Subjects can be different
-Tense expressed in P2
-잖아(요)

V/A/N(I)

-Used wen talking about something that both the speaker and listener are aware of or should be aware of (as you know..)
– Used when the speaker emphasizes something that he/she said to the listener (Like I told you..)
-Typically spoken not written
-조차

N

Used when something is considered to be fair or easy is different than what had been expected (not even <N attached>/”worst case scenario”) -마저
-까지
-(으)ㄹ 수조차 없어요 (used for verbs)
-used with -은/는 커녕 has the meaning of not even../let alone../not to mention..
-Speaker either did not expect or could not anticipate an extreme situation
-Use with negative statements
-지 그래(요)?

V

Used to suggest or recommend something to someone else (what about <V attached>) Can’t use with -아/어서
-지 말자고 하다 Citation- Suggestive sentences (negative)
-치고

N

-Used to indicate something is better or worse than what had been expected
-Used when everything is the same without an exception
Often used with -는 편이다 (tend/generally so)
(-으면) -(으)ㄹ수록

V/A

Used to express that the degree of P2 increases as the action or situation of P1 continues The more <V/A attached> P2 happens
아무+(이)나/아무+도

N

아무 refers to “any”, depending on the particle that follows it can either refer to people or things, 아무+도 is used to indicate “no one” -아무한테나, 아무 곳이나, 아무거나
-아무하고도, 아무 데도, 아무것도
-Positive expression follows 아무 + (이)나
-Negative expression follows 아무 +도
어찌나 -(으)ㄴ/는지

V/A

Used to emphasize P1 when it is the cause of P2 (I can’t believe <V/A attached> describing P1 resulting in P2 -얼마나 -는지 When using a V usually a degree adverb is present
얼마나
-(으)ㄴ/는지 모르다

V/A/N(I)

Used to emphasize the greatness of the degree of the fact or situation (You have no idea how <V/A/N attached> -았/었는지 몰라요 (used to refer to past situations or states of affairs) -Only declarative sentences
-Need a degree adverb (잘, 많이) in from of V in this form
-Can’t use to express feelings/attitude
하도 -아/어서

V/A

When an extreme degree of an actoin or state becomes the reason for P2 The A/V in between the clause shows what is the extreme reason
-(느)ㄴ 다고 하다 Citation- Declaritive sentences
-(으)/느냐고 하다 Citation- Interrogative sentences
-(으)라고 하다 Citation- Imperative sentences
-지 말라고하다 Citation- Imperative sentences (negative)
-자고 하다 Citation- Suggestive sentences
    • I have to agree with you.
      I think without natural phrases used to illustrate the usage of the points given; makes it too hard to understand the true nature of how it functions.

  • Thanks for sharing, next year i’m going to attend University in Busan, this help me a lot, keep up the good work 🙂 고마워

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